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Minister Narendra Modi will lose his Varanasi seat if the Opposition unites for the 2019 Lok Sabha elections.

  Narendra Modi took office in May 2014, and with the exception of the solitary page of the BJP manifesto devoted to foreign relations, there was little by which to gauge how the NDA government would tackle international relations.

"... (A) resurgent India must get its rightful place in the comity of nations and international institutions. The vision is to fundamentally reboot and reorient the foreign policy goals, content and
process, in a manner that locates India's global strategic engagement in a new paradigm and on a wider canvass, that is not just limited to political diplomacy, but also includes our economic, scientific, cultural, political and security interests, both regional and global, on the principles of equality and mutuality, so that it leads to an economically stronger India, and its voice is heard in the international fora," read the section titled 'Foreign Relations - Nation First, Universal Brotherhood' in the party's manifesto.

Now, a little over four years since the document was released and as Modi prepares for the fifth phase — according to this writer — of his foreign policy agenda, we have a good idea of just what the document meant when it referred to "proactive diplomacy". Before looking at what the prime minister's visit to Sweden and the UK this week holds in store, let's quickly run through the first four phases.

Phase I: The neighbourhood
One of the few foreign policy areas that was named explicitly in the manifesto was the neighbourhood. To that effect, the document claimed that the previous dispensation "failed to establish enduring friendly and cooperative relations with India's neighbours... India and its neighbours have drifted apart". And so it was that Modi's swearing-in ceremony on 26 May, 2014, saw invitations sent to Heads of State/government of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries. India's 'neighbourhood first' policy became more evident in State visits across the region and interactions with national leaders, culminating in Modi's December 2015 'surprise' visit to Lahore.



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